Brodmann area 3 is considered the primary processing center of the somatosensory cortex as it receives significantly more input from the thalamushas neurons highly responsive to somatosensory stimuli, and can evoke somatic sensations through electrical stimulation. Key Terms phototransduction: The process whereby the various bodies in the retina convert light into electrical signals.
Gustation Taste Only a few recognized submodalities exist within the sense of taste, or gustation. Different types of stimuli are sensed by different types of receptor cells.
Bitter There are several classes of bitter compounds which vary in chemical makeup. This occurs when a stimulus changes the cell membrane potential of a sensory neuron. The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord, and it can be divided into the somatic and the autonomic nervous system.
For example, orange juice—which contains citric acid—will taste sour because it has a pH value of approximately 3. Each of the receptor types is characteristic of only one odorant type. The Vestibular System The vestibular system is the sensory system that contributes to balance and the sense of spatial orientation.
Stimuli from varying sources, and of different types, are received and changed into the electrochemical signals of the nervous system.
Information is subsequently conveyed to a higher-order olfactory center such as the olfactory cortex in vertebrates or the mushroom bodies and lateral horn in insects [ 3637 ]. The word taste is used in a technical sense to refer specifically to sensations coming from taste buds on the tongue.
In addition to the sensory cortices, the brain or, more specifically, the cerebral cortex is involved in the control of voluntary movement, for example, in the frontal lobe [ 6 ]. The most obvious omission from this list is balance.