The result was two separate kinds of Christianity, headed in the west by the Bishop of Rome soon known as the Pope and in the east by the Patriarch of Constantinople appointed there by the Eastern Roman Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the eastern lands from that city.
Confucius had lived in China during the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, a period of increasing upheval, which caused him to think long and hard about the nature of order, good government, and human nature.
One way most established Chinese empires kept balance with the more developed peoples around them was through what was called the tribute system.
Confucian rule also worked because it matched, and was believed really to represent, the basic structure of Chinese culture and society. As Islam expanded east Hindus, Buddhists and others soon came to be treated also as acceptable faiths.
It began with the teachings of Muhammad, an almost illiterate caravan trader living in Mecca, a desert-edge Arabian caravan town. At the same time many European knights and ordinary men were also eager for adventure - and wealth.
Also by that time overland trade along the Dnieper was growing much less important, as shipping in the Mediterranean made overland routes less important.
New inventions, religious beliefs, artistic styles, languages, and social customs, as well as goods and raw materials, were transmitted by people moving from one place to another to conduct business.
At about age 6, a girl's feet would begin to be wrapped tightly in long strips of cloth.
The Vietnamese of Annam broke free from direct Chinese rule at the end of the Han, and kept their independence following Song reunification of China proper.